Cross Spider Araneus diadematus Also known as European garden spider, Diadem spider, or Cross Orbweaver Family Araneidae (Orb Weavers) Description: The Cross Spider or Garden Spider is a very common and well-known orb-weaver spider in Western Europe. Individual spiders can range from light yellow, to orange-brown or dark grey, but all European garden spiders have […]
Camera phones sometimes surprise with the level of detail captured, although nowhere near as good as the same image from an SLR, was quite surprised with the results.
Was checking over the kit in the garden and ended up with another damn closeup of an insect……. No tubes, just me laid flat out in damp grass, waiting for it to stand still – f10, @200mm 1/400, handheld (again). No flash. Really do need to get out and do something else…….
Who would have thought that the simple office stapler could have such a history ? The first known stapler was handmade in the 18th century in France for King Louis XV. Each staple was inscribed with the insignia of the royal court, as required. The growing uses of paper in the 19th century created a demand for an efficient paper fastener.
In 1866, George McGill received U.S. patent 56,587  for a small, bendable brass paper fastener that was a precursor to the modern staple. In 1867, he received U.S. patent 67,665 for a press to insert the fastener into paper. He showed his invention at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and continued to work on these and other various paper fasteners through the 1880s. In 1868 a patent was also taken out for a stapler in England by C.H.Gould. As well, also in 1868, Albert Kletzker of St Louis, MO patented a device to staple paper.
In 1877 Henry R. Heyl filed patent number 195603 for the first machines to both insert and clinch a staple in one step ,and for this reason some consider him as the inventor of the modern stapler. In 1876 and 1877 Heyl also filed patents for the Novelty Paper Box Manufacturing Co of Philadelphia,PA , However, the N. P. B. Manufacturing Co.’s inventions were to be used to staple boxes and books.
The first machine to hold a magazine of many preformed staples came out in 1878.
On February 18, 1879, George McGill received patent 212,316 for the McGill Single-Stroke Staple Press, the first commercially successful stapler. This device weighed over two and a half pounds and loaded a single 1/2 inch wide wire staple, which it could drive through several sheets of paper.
The first published use of the word “stapler” to indicate a machine for fastening papers with a thin metal wire was in an advertisement in the American Munsey’s Magazine in 1901